IEEE Access, Vol 11, 10.1109/ACCESS.2023.3259360. Mar 2023,
Interoperability remains to be one of the main challenges in the Internet of Things. The increasing number of IoT data sources from various vendors augments the complexity of integrating different sensors and actuators on the existing platforms, requiring human involvement and becoming error prone. To improve this situation, devices are usually coupled with a semantic description of their attributes. Such semantic descriptions, Things Descriptions, TD , are therefore an abstraction of devices, that is helpful to achieve a smoother integration of devices into IoT platforms. However, TD are usually vendor-based, so for large-scale IoT infrastructures, the integration complexity increases, as there will be different descriptions of similar sensors, provided by different vendors to be interconnected into IoT platforms. In this context, the paper assesses different ML-based semantic matchmaking approaches, against a sentence-based statistical similarity approach. For the ML approaches, the paper focuses on clustering and Natural Language Processing. The three approaches have been implemented on a realistic testbed, and experiments carried out show that the best performance achieved in terms of accuracy, time to completion of a matchmaking request, and memory usage is the NLP-based approach.
subject terms: IIoT; ML; semantics; matchmaking; interoperability